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Eration, Migration, Invasion, Galectin-Backgound In spite of recent advances in the treatment of patients with glioblastoma, the prognosis for those afflicted remains poor. Even when these tumors harbor a favorable gene methylation profile, the newest standard of care, including temozolomide as a chemotherapeutic [1],* Correspondence: Gtoussaint@medicine.tamhsc.edu 1 The Texas Brain and Spine Inst
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On problem with IRES vectors ?inability to transcribe the transcript following the IRES sequence if the first MCS is empty. The new pIRES2-acGFP1acGFP1 vector was used as a control for the pIRES2Gal1-acGFP1 construct. Both vectors were sequenced through their multiple cloning sites to ensure no PCRinduced mutations were present.Transfection and stable clone generationParental, control, and galecti
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Genetic alterations in melanoma. N Engl J Med 2005, 353:2135?147. 4. Van Raamsdonk CD, Bezrookove V, Green G, Bauer J, Gaugler L, O'Brien JM, Simpson EM, Barsh GS, Bastian BC: Frequent somatic mutations of GNAQ in uveal melanoma and blue naevi. Nature 2009, 457:599?02. 5. Van Raamsdonk CD, Griewank KG, Crosby MB, Garrido MC, Vemula S, Wiesner T, Obenauf AC, Wackernagel W, Green G, Bouvier N, et al
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L resection is an important predictor of patient survival [3,4], local therapy for glioblastoma fails because microscopically invasive cells evade resection and eventually proliferate in spite of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy [5,6]. Controlling the invasive nature of this tumor may offer hope for more efficacious local therapy, improved quality of life, and perhaps better response to adjuvant therapi
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Wski B, Glaspy JA, Comin-Anduix B, et al: Reversing melanoma cross-resistance to BRAF and MEK inhibitors by co-targeting the AKT/mTOR pathway. PLoS One 2011, 6:e28973. Prahallad A, Sun C, Huang S, Di Nicolantonio F, Salazar R, Zecchin D, Beijersbergen RL, Bardelli A, Bernards R: Unresponsiveness of colon cancer to BRAF(V600E) inhibition through feedback activation of EGFR. Nature 2012, 483:100?03.
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L resection is an important predictor of patient survival [3,4], local therapy for glioblastoma fails because microscopically invasive cells evade resection and eventually proliferate in spite of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy [5,6]. Controlling the invasive nature of this tumor may offer hope for more efficacious local therapy, improved quality of life, and perhaps better response to adjuvant therapi
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Ed migration and invasion in vitro. In vivo, tumors expressing high galectin-1 levels showed enhanced invasion and decreased host survival. Conclusions: In conclusion, cells at the margin of glioblastoma, in comparison to tumor core cells, have enhanced expression of mediators of invasion. Galectin-1 is likely one such mediator. Previous studies, along with the current one, have proven galectin-1
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Small-sample protocol recommendations, and GeneChip hybridization followed our standard protocol [28]. After washes, arrays were scanned using the GeneChip Scanner 3000 (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). Light intensity data from all spots on each chip were recorded as .cel files, stored on an internal server, and written to a digital variable disc (DVD).Data normalization and filteringreproducibility